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For the Spaniards, the long reign of Queen Elizabeth turned out to be a source of humiliation and outrages. The persecution of Catholics, the promotion of rebellion in the Netherlands, the detention of their treasure ships, the fall of the Armada,…

This first nautical atlas in history served perfectly the purposes of invasion or plundering of the enemy coasts that the respective armadas of Philip II and Elizabeth I held for decades. It offered the navigator everything he needed to know about…

English Recusants learned to defend the authority of the Pope from works of controversy. The Catholic priest Nicholas Sanders (1531-1581), who obtained the help of Philip II to go to Ireland to promote the rebellion against Queen Elisabeth and…

The English Catholics in exile in Europe created whatare known as ‘English Colleges’, Jesuit seminars where they were ordained to the priesthood, with the risky mission of secretly returning to their country to restore Catholicism. In Spain rose…

In 1596, the port of Cádiz suffered the attack of an Anglo-Dutch fleet. In the sack of the city, the English desecrated an image of the Virgin, hacking off both of Our Lady’s arms with their sabres and slashing her face. The English seminarians…

This Defense of the Catholic faith against the errors of Anglicanism, by Francisco Suárez, was published in response to the controversy raised by the proclamation and defense made by James I of his Oath of Allegiance (1606), through which he tried to…
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